Steve Smith talks the internet's postal service, the packet, and how it is used to transmit data all over the internet.
Released: July 27, 2013
The letter was one of the most important forms of communication to change the world, and the packet has achieved no less in its time. To understand what a network packet is, you only need to think of the idea of an envelop with a letter inside.
This envelop contains a data payload, also known as user data, and various headers like origin IP address, destination IP address, TTL, internet header length, type of service, length of packet in bytes, identification tags, fragmentation flags, header checksum, protocol type, fragment offset position, and more.
The easiest way to explain all this, is to identify each of the parts in relation to its tasks.
For the most part, packet-loss, is a normal and important part of the way internet communications work. When packets are lost, this is an indication of various scenarios, such as an indication that a specific path is not a viable solution, therefore other packets will change course. It is, also, an indication to slow down sending future packets, to avoid bandwidth bloat, which occurs when too many packets are within the memory of any router on the way from or to your computer or server. And, because the packet doesn't have to deal with mortality, we give them a TTL, or Time To Live, which is counted in hops. A single hop is the act traversal from one router, computer, server, etc... to another. If the TTL is set to 15, your packet must reach its destination before the counter runs to zero. It the TTL of the packet is 0, it is deleted, and is considered lost.
Packets can, also, be corrupted during transmission, and therefore a header checksum is provided to validate the packet is not corrupted when reaching its destination. If the packet is corrupted, it is deleted, and announced as lost, if the protocol requires the packet to be replaced. The header checksum is a more efficient way of determining if the packet is corrupted, but parity testing of each character is another way of testing for corruption, just not timely enough, and not implemented as a result.
When streaming content like video or audio, order is important, but packets can travel in any direction, and come back out of order, this is way the UDP protocol exists, and is well suited to this type communication. One detail, the type of service header would register as being streaming content, and the protocol header would indicate that these packets are UDP based, and nothing else. Only packets received in order will be processed, and only if the checksum validates that the packet is not corrupted. If packets are missing, and come later, they are ignored, and deleted. Missing packets are one of the reasons for artifacting in either video and audio transmissions. A high packet-loss ratio is, also, an indicator that the Quality of Service settings are not optimal, and may need to be adjusted for streaming content.
When the integrity of the file is important, like a download, we use TCP. Taking note of the packet length, identification and length of the packet, and validating the header checksum, we are able to have files rebuilt nearly identically to the original. If a packet is lost, or corrupted in transmission, it is simply re-requested. As a matter of function, all packets contain the total number of packets that you should be receiving, there making it simpler for the assembly of the final file download.
And, that is why the internet works, the way it does.
Next week, I shall be discussing the benefits of wired connections versus wireless, and how the type of connections relate to speed, and how it slows everything down.
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Host : Steve Smith | Music : Jonny Lee Hart | Editor : Steve Smith | Producer : Zed Axis Productions
Today, I launched a brand new set of HTTPS feeds because not only did I want to take on the challenge, wait what challenge? But, I, also, wanted to continue my operation F*ck You NSA for anyone who hasn't been paying attention. I, also, got the chance due to a massive unannounced glitch that took out all my feeds on Podtrac.
It should remove all traces of the virus, provided the hard drive has no bad sectors on it. It it does, you the mentioned Spinrite to try to fix the hard drive then run DBAN after, but usually, DBAN can erase the entire drive without issue. I've used it on maximum and let it run almost 16 hours on my friends computer, that is why this episode exists.
Great! I am going to run 'autonuke' on a machine that has polymorphic malware, not sure if it is in the MBR or somewhere else on the machine. Assuming autonuke runs fully without any error, will it remove the malware from the computer with certainty?
Yes, it will wipe all data, including the master boot record on your hard drive. If you are unable to get DBAN to work correctly, consider using Spinrite to fix the drive so DBAN can work, rarely needed, good to have.